Przegląd Religioznawczy – The Religious Studies Review <p style="text-align: justify;">Polskie Towarzystwo Religioznawcze od roku 1957 wydaje czasopismo naukowe „Euhemer. Przegląd Religioznawczy” (od roku 1960 organ PTR). Od roku 1992 czasopismo ukazuje się jako „Przegląd Religioznawczy” (tytuł angielski: The Religious Studies Review). Czasopismo zachowuje ciągłość poszczególnych numerów od 1957 r., do końca 2016 r. wydano 262 numery. W latach 1959-1967 wydano 5 numerów „Euhemer. Przegląd Religioznawczy – Zeszyty Filozoficzne” oraz 1 numer „Euhemer. Przegląd Religioznawczy – Zeszyty Filozoficzne" przekształcony w nowe czasopismo PTR „Studia z Dziejów Kościoła Katolickiego”, ukazujące się w latach 1960-67, które – po ukazaniu się 7 numerów – przejęte zostało przez Zakład Religioznawstwa PAN i dalej ukazywało się do 1991 r. jako „Studia Religioznawcze”.</p> POLSKIE TOWARZYSTWO RELIGIOZNAWCZE pl-PL Przegląd Religioznawczy – The Religious Studies Review 1230-4379 Janusz Mariański, Peter Ludwig Berger (1929-2017). Przejście od teorii sekularyzacji do desekularyzacji <p>Peter L. Berger – światowej sławy amerykański socjolog religii – dla sobie współczesnych był i nadal pozostaje niekwestionowanym autorytetem i przewodnikiem w teoretycznych rozważaniach nad znaczeniem religii w przeobrażeniach społeczeństwa tradycyjnego w modernistyczne. Berger, z wykształcenia socjolog i teolog, zdobył światowe uznanie jako teoretyk życia społecznego oraz analityk współczesnej religijności. W swoich rozlicznych publikacjach przez pół wieku śledził przemiany świadomości ludzkiej pod wpływem procesów zmian społecznych. Modelowi społeczeństwa tradycyjnego, homogenicznego pod względem konfesyjnym, w którym religia odgrywała znaczącą rolę w życiu jednostek i wspólnot, przeciwstawiał społeczeństwo nowoczesne bardziej zróżnicowane światopoglądowo, w którym religia stopniowo traci na znaczeniu i wiarygodności.</p> Maria Libiszowska-Żółtkowska Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Maria Libiszowska-Żółtkowska 2022-01-10 2022-01-10 4/282 Magisterium wiedzy i magisterium wiary. Założenia, uzasadnienia i zastrzeżenia <p>In these remarks I make the attempt to present the issue of the relation between the scientific knowledge and religious faith. It is being discussed since many centuries. In the Middle Ages it was also called the “two truths”. Nowadays it is called however as the two magisteria. The name had been proposed by the American evultionary biologist Stephen J. Gould. In his proposition it is linked to the NOMA (<em>Non-Overlapping Magisteria</em>) principle. It met with critique from the side of those scholars who, just as Richard Dawkins, share the view that there’s only one magisteria and it is made by science with no space for religious faith. Reservations had also been made by those scholars who, just as Andrew Newberg, do agree on the existence of two magisteria, but they should&nbsp; complete each other and they are convinced that with the passing of time they will do so. I have critical remarks on both of those two views. I see however the positive side of the intentions of Gould and Newberg.</p> Zbigniew Drozdowicz Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Zbigniew Drozdowicz 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 4/282 Alfred North Whitehead. Filozoficzna wiara uczonego i jej wpływ na współczesną teologię i religię <p>The subject of the article <em>Alfred North Whitehead. The Philosophical Faith of a Scientist and Its Influence on Contemporary Theology and Religion</em> is Whitehead’s concept of God, which constitutes the completion of his metaphysical system. The system provides a comprehensive vision of reality taking into account the modern state of science, and proposing a speculative solution to such persistent philosophical problems as the relationship between mind and body, God and evil, or freedom and determinism and indeterminism. Section 1 presents a brief biography of Whitehead highlighting his adolescent dissatisfaction with Anglicanism and moving closer to Catholicism, followed by a phase of secularism and agnosticism, and a later mature philosophical conception of God and religion. Section 2 presents the basic doctrines of Whitehead's metaphysics, and section 3 shows how process theism differs from classical, especially Thomistic theism. The dispute about the divine immutability and impassibility, questioned by Whitehead and his main intellectual successor Charles Hartshorne, is emphasized. Whitehead’s concept of God inspired many contemporary theologians and became an important competitor of classical theism. Process theism has not gained wider acceptance, despite the fact that it is more consistent with the scientific view of the world and better expresses certain aspects of popular Christian religiosity. This was mainly due to the rejection by process philosophers and theologians of traditional eschatology, and especially of the idea of subjective immortality. However, the process concept of God contributed, among others, to the emergence of open theism, which also had independent ancient sources, and to the adjustments made by many philosophers within classical theism. In Poland, Whitehead's metaphysics and philosophy of God influenced, among others, the work of Archbishop Józef Życiński. It is also worth mentioning that the Polish Socinians are regarded as precursors of process theism.</p> Piotr Gutowski Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Piotr Gutowski 2022-01-04 2022-01-04 4/282 Religijność uczonych w perspektywie kognitywnej <p>The religiosity of scholars substantially differs from the patterns of religiosity observed in the general population. Scholars are, on average, less religious than nonscholars. Scholars who profess religious faith tend to separate themselves from their religious communities. They also criticize and question the religious truths and keep their faith for themselves, especially in the academic community. Although many scholars perceive the conflict between science and religion, they have the resources to deal with the conflict. This article attempts to explain the specificity of scholars’ religiosity in terms of cognitive mechanisms that make it possible to reconcile religion and science irrespective of whether they are logically coherent or not.</p> Sławomir Sztajer Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Sławomir Sztajer 2022-01-07 2022-01-07 4/282 Extra ecclesiam nulla salus? Students’ trust in the catholic church on the eve of the women’s strike <p>The topic of this article is female students’ trust in the Catholic Church. The interest in the beliefs of female students stems from the fact that until recently, numerous sociological studies have shown that women were characterised by a high degree of conformism towards the teachings of the Church and a high level of involvement in religious life. Currently, it is observed that the differences in religiousness between men and women are blurring. Their attitudes and religious behaviour are similar, liberalised and deinstitutionalised. The inference regarding the trust of female students in the Catholic Church presented in this article refers to the foundational research, whose findings complement the interpretation of the results of the empirical research carried out in 2020 (research sample of 621 people), in which the author of this text, among others, participated. The result of this inference shows, among other things, that women's trust in the institution of the Church is declining. Female students distance themselves in all basic dimensions of its social activity (institutional authority, charitable, educational activity) and religious activity (mediation in salvation).</p> Wojciech Klimski Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Wojciech Klimski 2022-01-07 2022-01-07 4/282 Kulturowy i teologiczny wymiar feminizmu <p>The main purpose of this article is to present feminist theology as an integral part of contemporary feminism. In the author's opinion, the omission of this diverse and revolutionary in its consequences theological field is the cause of an apparent conflict between mainstream feminism and theology. Hence the review nature of the article presenting significant achievements of feminist theology. One of them is a positive approach to human corporeality, especially sexuality, which happens in response to traditional approaches, often hostile to these dimensions of human existence. However, the most important achievement of theological feminism is a paradigm shift in the approach to the place of women in three monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Therefore, these three religious traditions are presented in detail.</p> Stanisław Obirek Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Stanisław Obirek 2022-01-07 2022-01-07 4/282 Zasada niezależności państwa i związków wyznaniowych <p>The principle of independence of the state and religious associations is one of the main normative directives of religious relations in contemporary Poland. It has ideological roots not only in Catholic social teaching, but also in the liberal doctrine. The juridization of this principle is especially a reaction to the reality of absolutist, authoritarian or totalitarian regimes that essentially limit the freedom of religious communities. Since the end of the 20th century, the principle of independence of the state and the church has found a permanent place in the constitutionalism of a number of European secular (non-religious) states and some Latin American states. It is often accompanied by the principle of the autonomy of the state and / or religious associations and their cooperation. The principle of independence of the state and religious associations has a rich content and produces concrete political consequences. In a narrow sense, it means the internal self-government of the above-mentioned entities. In broad terms, the following aspects can be distinguished: organizational, normative, functional and ideological-symbolic. The principle in question means, in particular, that the state does not interfere in religious matters. It is incompetent in this respect. On the other hand, religious associations do not institutionally enter the sphere of public rule. The principle of independence is a guarantee of the freedom of conscience and of conscience and religion. It serves to shape a democratic socio-political system. It does not exclude the cooperation of the state and religious associations.</p> Paweł Borecki Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Paweł Borecki 2022-01-07 2022-01-07 4/282 Wpływ konfucjanizmu na chińską narrację w warunkach globalizacji <p>Confucianism is a worldview that has shaped Chinese civilization and its various forms of statehood for over two thousand years. With the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, its influence on the shaping of ideology and social life was interrupted for several decades. The new direction of the state initiated at the end of the 1970s resulted in the gradual restoration of selected ideas of Confucianism, which, along with Marxism and the strategy of entering globalization, shape the international identity of the Middle Kingdom. While Marxism remains the official ideology, one should focus on introducing elements of Chinese culture, which complements it in recognizing contemporary realities and formulating directions for changes in the state. The aim of the article is to show the influence of Confucianism on the contemporary Chinese narrative manifested in two dimensions: internal affairs, i.e. the development of the state and society, and external issues, international politics.</p> Gracjan Cimek Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Gracjan Cimek 2022-01-07 2022-01-07 4/282 Patriarcha Cyryl I wobec autokefalii Cerkwi Prawosławnej Ukrainy <p>The aim of this article is to present the position of Patriarch Cyril I towards the autocephaly of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. Patriarch Kirill I is against the autocephaly of Ukrainian Orthodoxy because it deprives Russia &nbsp;one of the effective instruments of influence over Ukraine, weakens the position of the Moscow Patriarchate in Russia itself, and the prospects of implementing the concept of the <em>russkij mir</em>. The patriarch argued that the situation of the Orthodox community in Ukraine was a consequence of the Ukrainian government's policy, the goals of which were the same as in the revolutionary period in the Soviet Union, i.e. to cause divisions that would lead to the destruction of the Russian Orthodox Church. It is very dangerous as it can be used by other countries as an example to violate religious freedom and human rights violations by political authorities.</p> Marek Delong Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Marek Delong 2022-01-07 2022-01-07 4/282 The exorcised. Demonic interference among the members of the Polish Charismatic religious communities <p>The dynamic expansion of the Neo-Pentecostal teachings across the world has given rise to the significant growth of interest in the question of demonic interference. John Wimber and Peter C. Wagner, who are believed to have been the most influential Neo-Pentecostal missionaries, spread the concept of spiritual warfare among their followers. This particular idea has become a substantial part of contemporary Christian Charismatic religious communities, also those located in Poland. What appears to be worth mentioning is that the members of the above-mentioned groups tend to perceive the activity of evil spirits as the main cause of their failures and emotional turmoil. The principal objective of this study is to investigate how the individuals who attend the Charismatic worship services in Poland conceptualize demonic interference and how this specific condition affects their daily functioning. Moreover, this research also refers to the similarities and differences between the ritual of exorcism in the Catholic Church and the deliverance ministry, which is typical of the so-called independent churches. Besides, the study attempts to put forward the concept of spiritual warfare in terms of its interpretation by the selected Charismatic religious communities. The analysis is based on individual in-depth interviews (IDI).</p> Ewelina Berdowicz Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Ewelina Berdowicz 2022-01-07 2022-01-07 4/282 Duchowość i religijność w początkach polskiego skautingu <p>The aim of the article is an attempt to indicate the place and role of spirituality and religion in the period of the emergence and construction of the ideological foundations of Polish Scouting. Spiritual and religious education in the movement was the result of the partitioned reality in which the Catholic faith united the Polish nation, and the military and military character of scouting was to strengthen the fighting spirit of the young generation for an independent homeland.</p> Edyta Głowacka-Sobiech Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Edyta Głowacka-Sobiech 2022-01-07 2022-01-07 4/282 Religia (katolicka) jako czynnik etnicyzujący – na przykładzie działalności Zrzeszenia Kaszubsko-Pomorskiego <p>In the case of ethnicity/nationality, religion (as well as language, origin, inhabited territory or historical memory) is an important component of identity. Religion, particularly as a cultural component, seems to have designated [and historically pointed] to kashubian identity. In this article, I would like to present the activities of the Kashubian-Pomeranian Association, an ethnic NGO that has been pretending to represent the Kashubian community since 1956. Kashubians are an ethnic minority, speaking the regional language – Kashubian living in northern Poland. They are predominantly Catholic. The Kashubian-Pomeranian Association, creating and maintaining the Kashubian identity, very often uses the religious [Catholic] setting to give prestige to its actions.</p> Monika Mazurek Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Monika Mazurek 2022-01-07 2022-01-07 4/282 Stosunek do religii i instytucji religijnych – analiza uwarunkowań aksjologicznych <p>The main aim of the research is a diagnosis of attitudes to religion and religious institutions (their role in the public sphere of social functioning, and establishing high principles) and value system. Surveys were conducted in 2003 (a sample of 325 students), in 2008 (a sample of 379 students), and 2013 (a sample of 368 students). It was assumed that there are differences between this three groups in acceptance of attitudes and that attitudes depend on a value system. The theoretical ground was based upon Rokeach’s concept, and The Value Survey of this author was used. A designated tool was constructed to measure attitudes. The results of research allow to state that approximately a half of the students expose significance of religion and religious institutions in public life, and identify religion as an important source of high principles. The attitudes were accepted by a smaller percentage of respondents in the third wave in comparison to the first and the second wave. Moreover, the attitudes were connected with a particular pattern of a value system that indicates differentiation of individualism – collectivism dimension.</p> Mirosława Czerniawska Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mirosława Czerniawska 2022-01-11 2022-01-11 4/282