Przegląd Religioznawczy – The Religious Studies Review <p style="text-align: justify;">Polskie Towarzystwo Religioznawcze od roku 1957 wydaje czasopismo naukowe „Euhemer. Przegląd Religioznawczy” (od roku 1960 organ PTR). Od roku 1992 czasopismo ukazuje się jako „Przegląd Religioznawczy” (tytuł angielski: The Religious Studies Review). Czasopismo zachowuje ciągłość poszczególnych numerów od 1957 r., do końca 2016 r. wydano 262 numery. W latach 1959-1967 wydano 5 numerów „Euhemer. Przegląd Religioznawczy – Zeszyty Filozoficzne” oraz 1 numer „Euhemer. Przegląd Religioznawczy – Zeszyty Filozoficzne" przekształcony w nowe czasopismo PTR „Studia z Dziejów Kościoła Katolickiego”, ukazujące się w latach 1960-67, które – po ukazaniu się 7 numerów – przejęte zostało przez Zakład Religioznawstwa PAN i dalej ukazywało się do 1991 r. jako „Studia Religioznawcze”.</p> POLSKIE TOWARZYSTWO RELIGIOZNAWCZE pl-PL Przegląd Religioznawczy – The Religious Studies Review 1230-4379 Z badań nad zakresem transcendencji głównych bóstw w religii germańskiej <p>The article attempts to define the scope of the transcendence of the main gods in the religion of ancient Germans. Testimony of G.J. Caesar and P.C. Tacitus differ on this point. Caesar describes the germanic gods as visible and material phenomena. Tacitus gives them the rank of mysterious, inaccessible creatures without a name or an image, giving signs read by means of fortune-telling. Various beings were denoted as gods in Germanic languages. <em>Aesir </em>are primordial images of ancestors or beings having a divine substance of life for the entire tribe. Ragina is a deity personifying decision and resolution. Like the Tīwaz, which came from the Indo-European era, it was related to judgments at war meetings. Odin and Thor, as gods of war, marginalized Tyr / Tīwaz. Their functions show the process of the god’s immanence, their indispensable presence for groups of warriors. This tendency is confirmed by the historic replacement of the old name of the heavenly supreme god <em>deiwos </em>with a new – <em>guda</em>. Guda is a being that is called upon, whose presence is experienced. In the history of the religious life of the ancient Germans, there is a tendency to define gods as creatures who have a clear influence on the everyday problems of people engaged in war.</p> Andrzej P. Kowalski Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Andrzej P. Kowalski 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 4/286 Grecki Prolog Ewangelii św. Jana jako hamaili chrześcijańskiego żołnierza w XVI-wiecznym Impe-rium Osmańskim <p>The article was written as a result of works on the edition of 16th-century <em>Rozmowa z Turczynem o wierze krześcijańskiej... </em>(“The dispute with a Turk over the Christian faith”) by a Croatian Bartholomaeo Georgius, published in 1548 in Cracow. It is a translation of his Latin <em>turcica</em>. Georgievič was a Hungarian subject and a former Turkish slave. He shows that in the Ottoman Empire in the mid-16th century, soldiers of Christian origin incorporated into the Ottoman army wore the so-called <em>hamaili </em>in the function of phylactery (Greek <em>phylakterion</em>). These was handwritten notes, worn “under the arm,” like Muslim hamaili with verses of the Quran. However, according to Georgius, it contained Christian content, i.e., the Greek verses of the Prologue to the Gospel of St. John “Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ Λόγος” (“In the beginning was the Word”). The author considered this evidence of the survival of the Christian faith among the conquered Balkan peoples. It was for him a fact of political and military importance. Georgius assured the local population would be ready to support the European army if it entered the territories conquered by the Turks. It is possible that his remarks are also the 16th-century confirmation of the existence of the Greek <em>alhamijado </em>in the Ottoman Empire. There are many indications that the little Greek Gospel worn as an amulet was written in the Arabic alphabet.</p> Aleksandra Kunikowska Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Aleksandra Kunikowska 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 4/286 Rozprawa o wolnomyślicielstwie (1713) Anthony’ego Collinsa <p>In this paper, I classify and briefly discuss the variety of arguments for freedom of thought summoned by the English free-thinker Anthony Collins (1676–1729) in his formerly controversial and influential book entitled <em>A Discourse of Free-Thinking, Ocasion’d by the Rise and Growth of a Sect call’d Free-Thinkers </em>(1713). I argue that some of them are indeed reasonable or partly reasonable.</p> Przemysław Spryszak Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Przemysław Spryszak 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 4/286 The initiatory function of religion and its verification in affective cognition of God <p>The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the initiatory (mystagogic) function of religion, which is associated with its essential spiritual (salvific) function. The text comprises three parts. The first one addresses the problems concerning the very definition of the phenomenon of religion, the attempts to formulate its definitions, either substantive (reflecting the essence of religion) or functional (emphasizing the functions of religion), and the issue of their empirical verification. In the second part, the various functions of religion are outlined in light of the distinction between essential and auxiliary functions (specifically and non-specifically religious). One of these is the initiatory (mystagogic) function, the verification of which takes place in the affective cognition of God. The third part characterizes the affective cognition of God, which originates in the affective states and leads to a deeper knowledge of the Absolute.</p> Karol Jasiński Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Karol Jasiński 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 4/286 Romantyzm, ezoteryzm, chrześcijaństwo. Ideowe inspiracje Zbioru Pieśni wydawnictwa Hejnał <p>In the 1930s, a songbook entitled “Zbiór Pieśni” (Collection of Songs) was published in Cieszyn Silesia. It is unique for two reasons. First, it is the only Polish cantional related to spiritist meetings during which it was used. Second, an analysis of its content reveals three interesting sources of ideational inspiration. One can find influences of texts by romantics such as Juliusz Słowacki and Ignacy Krasicki, inspirations from Protestant revival songs, as well as the impact of texts written by people ideologically connected with the editorial office of Hejnał Publishing House. The latter were spiritual seekers reinterpreting Christianity in a non-confessional way, inspired by esoteric currents of culture, such as modern gnosis, theosophy, etc. The article analyses the content of the songbook as well as the editorial interference in the published texts, showing it as an example of an important but “suppressed” (Hanegraaff) area of culture in Poland at that time.</p> Zbigniew Pasek Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Zbigniew Pasek 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 4/286 Katolicy i katolickość w polityce Słowaków – państwo, partie i polityka. Wybrane zagadnienia <p>Slovakia and Catholic Church rarely become the popular topic of discussion in Poland. However, Catholic Church has built Slovak national identity for over 200 years. That is why it is worth realizing the relationship between the Slovak State, political parties and the Catholic community for the last few decades. The presented article highlights some of the main elements of the Slovak picture and focuses on some cases that nowadays are symptomatic for Slovakia.</p> Iwona Jakimowicz-Pisarska Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Iwona Jakimowicz-Pisarska 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 4/286 Religia Ctrl C/Ctrl V. Kopimizm jako nowy wymiar religijności internetowej <p>The article explores the phenomenon of kopimism as a new form of cyber religiosity linked to the processes of transformation of contemporary religious beliefs. The kopimist movement is being analyzed through the phenomenological perspective in relations to the unfolding context of the impact modern technology has today in many fields of social life. The paper delivers not only a detailed analysis of kopimism itself but also gives insight into selected aspects of the entanglement of religion and the internet today. In effect, we may also gain an interesting picture of how modern religiosity is articulated and constructed through the use of media and technological tools and how technology is being sacralized, blurring the traditional understanding of religion itself.</p> Jarema Drozdowicz Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Jarema Drozdowicz 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 4/286 Współczesne papiestwo jako kozioł ofiarny. Interpretacja mimetyczna <p>One of the research methods is the mimetic theory developed by René Girard, a French-American literary scholar and anthropologist. An important idea in this concept is the scapegoat. Reluctance towards individuals or groups so defined is used to build social and political unity. Girard emphasizes that Napoleon Bonaparte played this role in the past. He was hated, and at the same time, his political and military skills were imitated. Nowadays, the papacy is the institution around which channeled aversion is an opportunity to build unity. On this subject, Girard referred to the person of Pope Benedict XVI, who efficiently united the Orient and the Occident in their aversion to each other. The pope who successfully defends himself against victimization is Francis. He does not reject the scapegoat but uses it efficiently, shifting his resentment from himself onto the clergy under his authority. In this action, Francis is imitated by the Polish hierarchs who adopted his conviction that it is necessary to combat clericalism. Making a smaller or larger group of clergymen a scapegoat seems to be not a great loss, especially when we consider the fact that this is a significant group in Polish society. In this work, Polish bishops are supported by two religious communities – Dominicans and Jesuits – whose members willingly highlight the negative features of the priests active in the parish space.</p> Adam Romejko Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Adam Romejko 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 4/286 Możliwości zastosowania koncepcji niewidzialnej religii Thomasa Luckmanna w socjologicznych ba-daniach religii oraz religijności polskiego społeczeństwa. Spojrzenie krytyczne <p>In 1967, Thomas Luckmann published ‘Invisible Religion’ – a book in which he entered a polemic with the existing tradition of research on religion and religiosity and indicated that religion should be treated by social sciences as a permanent process. The author of the article recalls the theses of a German sociologist to show which aspects of Polish research in the sociology of religion may be considered incomplete – e.g., lack of theoretical consistency, as well as ease of inference. He then looks again at the concept of invisible religion, describing eight of its most important aspects. Finally, theoretical considerations of Thomas Luckmann’s thesis allow us to look at it from a universal perspective and show in which areas of research into Polish society the concept of invisible religion can still be used.</p> Jan Radomski Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Jan Radomski 2022-12-22 2022-12-22 4/286 Psychological distress. The Neo-Pentecostal language as a trigger for personal revival and transforma-tion <p>Over the past decades, Neo-Pentecostalism has spread across the nations, mainly because of its strong emphasis on the so-called prosperity gospel and the promotion of supernatural phenomena. John Wimber, the founder of what came to be known as power evangelism, stressed the importance of signs and wonders, whereas Charles Peter Wagner, the father of New Apostolic Reformation (NAR), developed the concept of leadership and strengthened the position of the highly-efficient, entrepreneurial ministers working independently. These two figures contributed enormously to the contemporary religious marketplace; therefore, their ideas have successfully shaped the intra-community reality of various religious groups representing Charismatic Christianity. The principal objective of this study is to investigate the role the Neo-Pentecostal language combined with non-linguistic elements plays in one’s personal revival and transformation. The research concerns both Neo-Pentecostals and Pentecostal Catholics from Poland and Italy. The analysis is based on participant observation, in-depth interviews, and surveys.</p> Ewelina Berdowicz Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Ewelina Berdowicz 2022-12-22 2022-12-22 4/286 Religia i polityka. Taktyki oporu w rosyjskiej sztuce współczesnej <p>In the construction of the post-Soviet identity after perestroika, the authorities centralized in the Kremlin and the Orthodox Church turned out to be clearly active factors, which seemed to be supplemented by the oligarchies of the new financial elites. In the face of Putin’s aggression against Ukraine, the West reacted not only with sanctions, but also with the so-called cancel culture. That is why it is worth recalling the dissident activities of Russian artists and activists, and looking at their critical tactics and strategies, which target both the state authorities and the Orthodox Church.</p> Jacek Zydorowicz Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Jacek Zydorowicz 2023-01-02 2023-01-02 4/286 Between divinatory and magical practices in Mesopotamia <p>The article deals with the question of where, in Mesopotamian terms, the possible border between divination and magic is. In ancient Mesopotamia, the notions of divination and magic intermingled because they both referred to one conceptual whole and represented one coherent world. Can we define the scope of these concepts and the boundaries between them? More specifically, was divination a magical practice for the Mesopotamians, or to what extent was divination likely magical? One of the earliest modern (1900 AC) works to discuss divination is entitled <em>The Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon</em>, which suggests that Western scholars treat magic and astrology (one of the branches of divination) as being on the same level. A comparison of selected divinatory and magical texts serves as a canvas for further research and discussion.</p> Krzysztof Ulanowski Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Krzysztof Ulanowski 2023-01-02 2023-01-02 4/286