Grecki Prolog Ewangelii św. Jana jako hamaili chrześcijańskiego żołnierza w XVI-wiecznym Impe-rium Osmańskim


Słowa kluczowe:

Christians in the 16th century Ottoman Empire, phylactery, hamaili, Prologue of St. John


The article was written as a result of works on the edition of 16th-century Rozmowa z Turczynem o wierze krześcijańskiej... (“The dispute with a Turk over the Christian faith”) by a Croatian Bartholomaeo Georgius, published in 1548 in Cracow. It is a translation of his Latin turcica. Georgievič was a Hungarian subject and a former Turkish slave. He shows that in the Ottoman Empire in the mid-16th century, soldiers of Christian origin incorporated into the Ottoman army wore the so-called hamaili in the function of phylactery (Greek phylakterion). These was handwritten notes, worn “under the arm,” like Muslim hamaili with verses of the Quran. However, according to Georgius, it contained Christian content, i.e., the Greek verses of the Prologue to the Gospel of St. John “Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ Λόγος” (“In the beginning was the Word”). The author considered this evidence of the survival of the Christian faith among the conquered Balkan peoples. It was for him a fact of political and military importance. Georgius assured the local population would be ready to support the European army if it entered the territories conquered by the Turks. It is possible that his remarks are also the 16th-century confirmation of the existence of the Greek alhamijado in the Ottoman Empire. There are many indications that the little Greek Gospel worn as an amulet was written in the Arabic alphabet.